Assessment of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Selected Oil Spilled Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria

U. L. Anekwe, G. O. Avwiri, E. O. Agbalagba


A prelude radiological impact assessment of oil spillage on the oil spilled environment, those saddled with the responsibility of cleaning the spilled crude and the host/nearest communities residents in Rivers State Nigeria has been examined in-situ, using radiation meters (Digilert 100 nuclear radiation meter) and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken twice in a month for three months in the five different oil spilled site and one measurement taken at a control site where there is no oil spillage but within oil bearing community. The average radiation values in all the oil spilled site is 0.019±0.006mRh-1, this is far above the 0.011±0.003mRh-1obtained for the control and ICRP 0.013±0.005mRh-1 world background levels. The average equivalent dose rate obtained in all the five studied site is 1.6mSvy-1 while the dose rate in the control is 0.93mSvy-1. The results showed that all the oil spilled sites yearly equivalent dose rate exceeded the 1mSvy-1 maximum permissible limit recommend for the public and non-nuclear industrial environment by International Council on Radiological Protection (ICRP,1999). All the oil spilled environment radiation levels exceeded the normal world average BIR level of 0.013mRh-1and other reported values in similar environment. This shows that the oil spilled environment have been impacted radiologically. This will pose some long-term health side effects on the clean-up workers and residents of the host communities. Interim proactive measures are recommended while further and a detail study is ongoing.


Assessment, Radiological impact, Oil spill, Rivers State

Full Text:



[1] Abison, A. S. (2001). Radiographic Operations and Safety in the Nigeria Petroleum Industry. Health Phys., 80, 179-181.

[2] Ajayi, T. R., Torto, N., Tchokossa, P., & Akinlua A. (2009). Natural Radioactivity and Trace Metals in Crude oils: Implication for Health. Environ Geochem Health, 31, 61-69.

[3] Akpabio, L. E., Etuk, E. S., & K. Essian, K. (2005). Environmental Radioactive Levels in Ikot Ekpene Nigeria. Nig. Journal. Space. Res., 1, 80 – 87.

[4] Arogunjo, M. A., Farai, I. P., & Fuwape, I. A. (2004). Impact of Oil and Gas Industry to the Natural Radioactivity Distribution in the Delta Region of Nigeria. Nig. Journal. Phys., 16, 131-136.

[5] Arogunjo, A. M., Farai, I. P., & Fuwape, I. A. (2004). Dose Rate Assessment of Terrestrial Gamma Radiation in the Delta Region of Nigeria. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, 108, 73- 77.

[6] Avwiri G. O., & Ebeniro, J. O. (1998). External Environmental Radiation in an Industrial Area of Rivers State. Nigeria. Journal. Physics., 10, 105-107.

[7] Avwiri, G. O., & Agbalagba, E. O. (2012). Studies on the Radiological Impact of Oil and Gas Activities in Oil Mineral Lease 30 (OML3) Oil Fields in Delta State, Nigeria. J. Pet. Environ Biotechnol, 3(2), 1- 8.

[8] Avwiri, G. O., Agbalagba, E. O., & Enyinna, P. I. (2007). Terrestrial Radiation Around Oil and Gas Facilities in Ughelli Nigeria. Asian Network for Science Information. Journal. Applied Sci., 7(11), 1543-1546.

[9] Ebong, I. D. U., & Alagoa, K. D. (1992). Estimates of Gamma – Ray Background Air Exposure at a Fertilizer Plant. Discovery Innovate, 4, 25-28.

[10] Elena, B. C., & Gracea, C. (2004). Radiological Impart Assessment on Behalf of Oil/Gas Industry. Journ. Preventive Med., 12(1-2), 16-21.

[11] European Council for Nuclear Research (ECNR). (1995). Safety Guide for Experiments at European Council for Nuclear Research, ECNR, Part III-Advice 40, Ionizing Radiation. Retrieved from http;//cem.web.cem…/40

[12] International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). (1999). The 1995 – 99 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 76. Pergamon Press.

[13] Jibiri N.N., Mbawanku, A.O., Oridata, A.A., & Ujiagbedion, C. (1999). Natural Radionuclide Concentration Levels in Soil and Water Around Cement Factory. Nig. J. Phys, 11, 12-16.

[14] Laogun, A. A., Ajayi, N. O., & Agaja, S. A. (2006). Variation in Wellhead Gamma Radiation Levels at the Nigeria Petroleum Development Company Oil Field, Ologbo Ede State, Nigeria. Nigeria. Journal. Physics, 18(1), 135-140.

[15] National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). (1993). Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation: NCRP Report No. 116, March.

[16] Osuji, I. C., & Avwiri, G. O. (2005). Flare Gases and Other Pollutants Associated with Air Quality in Industrial Areas of Nigeria: An Overview. Journal. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 2, 1277 – 1289.

[17] Otarigho, M. D. (2007). Impact of Oil Spillage on the People of Ughelli South Local Government Area, Delta State. Journal Environmental Res. & Policies, 2, 44 – 50.

[18] Stanislav, P., & Elema, C. (1998). Environmental Impact of the Off-Shore Oil and Gas Industries East Northpart, USA. UNSCEAR.

[19] Taiwo, B. A., & Akalia, T. C. (2009). Spatial Variation in Groundwater Geochemistry and Water Quality Index in Port Harcourt. Scientia Africana, 8(1), 134-155.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Share us to:   


If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in Energy Science and Technology are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http:// Http://;

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures